A Guide for Co-Created Virtual Simulation Debriefing to Support Inclusivity, Equity and Diversity

Laura Killam, Dr. Marian Luctkar-Flude, and Dr. Jane Tyerman

The Plan, Discuss, Reflect process for co-creation

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A publication about this example that is more detailed is in press – Watch for: Killam, L. A., Luctkar-Flude, M., & Tyerman, J. (Accepted). Shaping social justice values through inclusive assessment and debriefing of eLearning modules. Journal of Nursing Education.


  • 62 year three Canadian undergraduate pre-licensure nursing students
  • Course focus: Empowerment, critiquing health inequities, advocate for social change
  • 10 open access modules including simulations were selected to be completed asynchronously
    • Pre-simulation: planned to discuss and co-create the assignment expectations based on a brief self-assessment of their learning needs
    • Participation: Asynchronous, from the nurse’s perspective 
    • Debriefing: three methods of debriefing
      • Initial reflections including proof of module completion (10%)
      • Large-group debriefing (not graded)
      • Final reflections (10%)
  • Feedback from the Wabnode Center’s Indigenous Elders, the Accessibility Office, the Manager of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion, and persons with lived experience
  • Progressed from simple to complex to decrease cognitive load


  • To ensure all students ‘voices’ were heard syllabus discussion happened during class time, time was given for everyone to reflect and respond after class, and decisions were made and explained during the next class.
  • Initial reflection expectations did not change
  • The process for in-class debriefing evolved to include more anonymous methods of debriefing (an anonymous Google Document)
  • Options were added for final reflection completion (such as a paper instead of a video)


  • Grading criteria were influenced by co-creation
  • Used a traditional approach (where the educator determines a grade)
  • Comments from initial reflections were listed in a document and discussed with the large group (individual comments were typically not made)
  • Large group discussions were not graded and primarily used for open and honest reflection
  • Strengths-based video feedback was provided for final reflections, which were graded using a marking guide
  • Limiting comments on initial reflections improved efficiency and did not seem to harm learning


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